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 Table of Contents    
ORIGINAL ARTICLE  
Year : 2010  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 231-236
Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf


1 Department of Rasashastra and Bhaishajya Kalpana, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat, India
2 Pharmacognosy lab, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat, India

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Date of Submission20-Feb-2010
Date of Acceptance08-Jan-2011
Date of Web Publication16-Feb-2011
 

   Abstract 

Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic characters of this plant include stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hair and mucilage cells. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (0.6%), total ash (10.75%), acid insoluble ash (0.045%), alcohol-soluble extractive (21.7%), and water-soluble extractive (30.72%). Preliminary analysis for the presence of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and proteins. Thin layer chromatographic study of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of five, six and seven spots in short UV, long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species.

Keywords: Pharmacognostical study, physicochemical study, thin layer chromatography

How to cite this article:
Yadav P, Harisha C R, Prajapati P K. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf. Int J Ayurveda Res 2010;1:231-6

How to cite this URL:
Yadav P, Harisha C R, Prajapati P K. Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf. Int J Ayurveda Res [serial online] 2010 [cited 2014 Oct 25];1:231-6. Available from: http://www.ijaronline.com/text.asp?2010/1/4/231/76787

   Introduction Top


Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. (Fabaceae), known as Agasti or swamp pea, is an important medicinal plant and native to many Asian countries including India. It is a small, erect, quick-growing, short-lived and soft-wooded tree which grows to a height of 10 m. It has a diameter of 25 cm, is sparsely branched, has straight cylindrical stem with white soft wood. The bark is light gray, corky, and deeply furrowed. The leaves are pinnate, 15-30 cm long, with 16-30 pairs of linear oblong leaflets. Racemes are 2.5 cm long with two to four white to pink, pendulous flowers. The corolla is 7-9 cm long and pods are 50-60 cm long. [1] The bark, leaves, gums, and flowers are considered medicinal. They are used as diuretic, emetic, emmenagogue, febrifuge, laxative, and tonic. [2] It is also used for treating nyctalopia [3] and a variety of refractive ocular disorders. Extracts of various parts show anxiolytic, anticonvulsive, cytoprotective and hemolytic effects. [5] In Rasashastra, it is used for processing of various formulations. The tender leaves, green fruit, and flowers are eaten alone as a vegetable or mixed into curries or salads in various parts of South Asia. [6] As it is a fast growing tree, it combines well with agriculture (agroforestry) in areas where trees are not normally grown and becomes an important fuel wood source. Tender portions serve as cattle fodder. [7] Pharmacognostical evaluation of leaves, which are the most important useful part, is not available in literature. Therefore, a detailed investigation of fresh as well as powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out using pharmacognostical and physicochemical parameters.


   Material and Methods Top


Fresh leaves of Agasti (bearing pink inflorescence) were collected in the month of January from the botanical garden of the Institute of Ayurvedic Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jamnagar. Pharmacognostical evaluation of fresh drug including histochemical studies were carried out by taking free hand sections. [8] Powder microscopy of shade-dried powder was carried out. Photomicrographs were taken using Swift Ives Camera Lucida. Leaf constants and quantitative microscopic methods were carried out using ocular and stage micrometer, C Baker, London, and Abbe's drawing apparatus. [9] Physicochemical constants, [10] organic analysis, fluorescence studies and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were carried out from shade-dried powder. Voucher herbarium specimen along with voucher crude drug sample is preserved in the Pharmacognosy Lab, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar. Botanical identification was carried out by using various floras. [11]


   Results Top


Macroscopic characters

Leaf is compound and pari-pinnate with an average length of 15-25 cm. It is narrow with numerous leaflets which are opposite in arrangement. Single leaflet is 2-4 cm long and 10-15 mm in breadth, linear, oblong, mucronate, deciduous, stipulus lanceolate or setaceous deciduous. On an average, in a mature compound leaf, there are 20-30 paired leaflets [Figure 1] and [Figure 2].
Figure 1: Compound leaf with pink inflorescence

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Figure 2: Dimensions of fresh leaf (4 × 1.5 cm)

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Microscopic characters

Surface preparation

The stomata are anisocytic with three subsidiary cells around the guard cells in the lower epidermis, whereas both anisocytic and anomocytic stomata are seen in the upper epidermis. The trichome covering is unicellular with a conical bulbous base, thick walled, appressed to the epidermis [Figure 3] and [Figure 4]. The upper epidermis shows single-layered, barrel shaped cells, whereas lower epidermis shows somewhat barrel to oval shaped cells. Polygonal, thin-walled parenchymatous cells were seen on powder microscopy [Figure 5] and [Figure 6]. On an average, the vein islet number is 20-23, stomatal index is 15-20 and palisade ratio is 7-8 in upper epidermis and 5-6 in lower epidermis.
Figure 3: Petiole showing vascular bundles and resin and mucilage containing cells with presence of appressed trichome

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Figure 4: Powder microscopy showing conical based appressed trichomes

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Figure 5: TS of leaflet showing upper and lower epidermis along with palisade cells

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Figure 6: Powder microscopy showing epidermal cells

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Transverse section of leaflet

The upper epidermis has a thick cuticle with single-layered, barrel shaped cells. Lower epidermis is also single layered with stomata and compactly arranged with unicellular simple epidermal hairs [Figure 3],[Figure 5],[Figure 7],[Figure 8],[Figure 9]. The mesophyll is differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. Palisade cells are seen below the upper epidermis and are formed into two layers [Figure 5] and [Figure 10]. The cells are compactly arranged, long and tubular with chloroplasts. Spongy parenchyma forms rest of the tissue, with rounded cells, which vary in shape and are loosely arranged and enclosing small air spaces with numerous chloroplast secretory cavities containing oil and mucilage cells [Figure 11] and [Figure 12].
Figure 7: Lower epidermis showing anisocytic stomata (20×)

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Figure 8: Upper epidermis showing anisocytic stomata (20×)

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Figure 9: Main rachis ground plan

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Figure 10: TS of leaflet through midrib along with vascular bundles

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Figure 11: TS of petiole with extravascular bundles (20×)

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Figure 12: TS showing the presence of mucilage cells

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The vascular tissue consists of one large vascular bundle in the midrib. Each vascular bundle is conjoint, collateral, closed and surrounded by parenchymatous bundle sheath that extends toward both lower and upper epidermis. Metaxylem is situated toward lower epidermis and protoxylem toward upper epidermis. The phloem of the vascular bundle is directed toward lower epidermis. Parenchymatous bundle sheath consists of resin cells and tannin containing cells [Figure 3] and [Figure 9].

Powder microscopy

Organoleptic characters are shown in [Table 1]. Anisocytic stomata, simple epidermal hairs, dark yellowish brown tannin fragments, light yellowish resinoids, oil globules, mucilage cells, spiral vessels and epidermal cells were observed under the microscope [Figure 6],[Figure 13],[Figure 14],[Figure 15],[Figure 16].
Table 1: Organoleptic characters of powder of Sesbania grandiflora


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Figure 13: Powder microscopy of leaf showing the presence of spiral vessels

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Figure 14: Powder microscopy showing tannin contents

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Figure 15: Powder microscopy showing the presence of epidermal cells with chloroplasts

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Figure 16: Powder microscopy showing resin cells and anisocytic stomata

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The moisture content [12] was 0.6%, total ash [13] 10.75%, acid insoluble ash [14] 0.045%, alcohol-soluble extractive [15] 21.7%, while the water-soluble extractive [16] was found to be 30.72%. Fluorescence studies of shade-dried powdered drug in different media were carried out under visible light and UV light of long and short wavelengths. [17] When the powdered drug treated with different reagents was observed under UV and ordinary light, it emitted various color radiations [Table 2] which helped in identifying the drug in powder form. Physicochemical analysis for the presence of various functional groups was carried out on the methanol soluble extractive. [18] The results are shown in [Table 3].
Table 2: Ultraviolet analysis of leaf powder of Sesbania grandiflora


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Table 3: Preliminary qualitative analysis of Sesbania grandiflora leaf powder for the presence of various functional groups


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The same extract was examined by TLC using the solvent system of Toluene:Ethyl acetate in a ratio of 8:2. The developed plate was observed under 254 and 366 nm. Anisaldehyde in H 2 SO 4 vapors was used as derivatization for visualization and the developed plate was incubated at 105ºC and observed under daylight [19] [Figure 17]. The observations are tabulated in [Table 4]. Phytochemical and chromatographic studies revealed that the plant essentially contains saponins, tannins and phenols.
Table 4: TLC analysis of methanolic extract of Sesbania grandiflora leaf powder


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Figure 17: Methanol soluble extractive chromatograms (a) Short UV, (b) Long UV (c) After spraying anisaldehyde in H2SO4

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   Discussion and Conclusion Top


Pharmacognostical evaluation of S. grandiflora (L.) Pers. leaves provided specific parameters that will be useful in scientific evaluation, identification and authentication of the drug. Stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hairs and mucilage cells are important demarcating characters.

 
   References Top

1.The Wealth of India, Raw Materials. Vol. 9. New Delhi: C.S.I.R. (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research); 1999. p. 295.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.James A. Duke. Handbook of Energy Crops. 1983, Unpublished.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.Acharya Sushruta, Sushruta Samhita, Ambika Datta Shastri, Hindi commentary. Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthana, Sutra Sthana 46/282. Varanasi: 2001.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.Kasture VS, Deshmukh VK, Chopde CT. Anxiolytic and anticonvulsive activity of Sesbania grandiflora leaves in experimental animals. Phytother Res 2002;16:455-60.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.Pari L, Uma A, Protective effect of Sesbania grandiflora against erythromycin estolate-induced hepatotoxicity. Therapie 2003;58:439-43.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.Available from: http://www.wikipedia.com , Sesbania grandiflora - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.htm [Last accessed on 2008 Dec 22].  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.Sharma PC, Yelne MB, Dennis TJ. Database on Medicinal Plants used in Ayurveda CCRAS Publication, Vol. 3, New Delhi: Reprint Edition; 2005. p. 1-6.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.Wallis TE. Textbook of Pharmacognosy. 15 th ed. London: Churchill Publications; 1985. p. 572-82.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 1, Appendix 2.1.4, 2.1.5 and 2.1.7. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.   Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2008.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.Gamble JS. The Flora of Presidency of Madras. Vol. 1. London, Adlard & Sons; 1967. p. 1353.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. Appendix 2.2.9. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.   Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. Appendix 2.2.3. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. Appendix 2.2.4. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. Appendix 2.2.6. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.Ayurvedic Pharmacopoeia of India. Part 1, Vol. 5. Appendix 2.2.7. New Delhi: Government of India Publication; 2004.  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.Chase CR, Pratt R. Fluorescence of powdered vegetable drugs with particular reference to development of a system of Identification. J Am Pharm Assoc; 1949;38:324-31.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.Kokate CK, Purohit AP, Gokhale SB. Pharmacognosy. United Statesnone : CBS Publishers and Distributors; 2005. p. 169.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.Gurdeep R, Chatwal, Sham K. Industrial Method of Chemical Analysis. 5 th revised and Enlarged ed. Mumbai: Himalaya Publishing House; 2005. p. 2.272-2.503, 2.599- 2.616, 2.673-2.700.  Back to cited text no. 19
    

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Correspondence Address:
Pramod Yadav
Department of RS and BK, IPGT and RA, Gujarat Ayurved University, Jamnagar - 361 008, Gujarat
India
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DOI: 10.4103/0974-7788.76787

PMID: 21455451

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    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11], [Figure 12], [Figure 13], [Figure 14], [Figure 15], [Figure 16], [Figure 17]
 
 
    Tables

  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4]



 

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