International Journal of Ayurveda Research International Journal of Ayurveda Research
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   Table of Contents - Current issue
January-March 2011
Volume 2 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-66

Online since Tuesday, July 26, 2011

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Editorial p. 1
Urmila Thatte
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83172  PMID:21897635
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Exploring the possible mechanisms of action behind the antinociceptive activity of Bacopa monniera p. 2
Manju Bhaskar, AG Jagtap
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83173  PMID:21897636
Aim: Earlier studies have demonstrated that Bacopa monniera (BM), a plant described in Ayurveda for many CNS actions was found to exhibit antidepressant (methanolic extract at 20mg/kg and 40mg/kg p.o.) as well as antinociceptive activity (aqueous extract (AE) at 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg p.o.). The present study sought to explore the possible mechanisms of antinociceptive effects of aqueous extract of Bacopa monniera (AEBM) at 80 mg/kg, 120 mg/kg and 160 mg/kg given orally. Materials and Methods: AEBM was given singly as well as with selective α2 receptor blocker Yohimbine, selective β1 receptor blocker Atenolol, serotonin receptor antagonist Cyproheptadine and a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone in experimental groups of mice and rats under strict protocols and conditions. Results: We observed that the antinociceptive effects of AEBM in the acetic acid writhing test was prevented by prior treatment with the selective Yohimbine (1 mg/kg, i.p; 14.50 ± 2.26 and 37.17 ± 2.14 writhes in the AEBM-treated and yohimbine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively) and selective β1 Atenolol receptor blocker (1 mg/kg, i.p; 14.50 ± 2.26 and 31.00 ± 5.44 writhes in the AEBM-treated and yohimbine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively). In the formalin test, the reduction in licking time with AEBM was found to be reversed by prior treatment with serotonin receptor antagonist Cyproheptadine (1 mg/kg, i.p; 47.33 ± 2.25s and 113.50 ± 3.83s (during phase I i.e. 0-5 min) and 26.67 ± 3.83s and 88.17 ± 7.27s (during phase II i.e. 20-30 min) in the AEBM-treated and Cyproheptadine pre-treated AEBM groups, respectively). The % increase in tail flick latency with AEBM was prevented by prior treatment with the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (2mg/kg, i.p; 282.35 and 107.35 in the AEBM-treated and naloxone-treated groups, respectively). Conclusions: Our results indicate, that the endogenous adrenergic, serotonergic and opioidergic systems are involved in the analgesic mechanism of action of the aqueous extract of Bacopa monniera.
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The efficacy of Ayurvedic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis: Cross-sectional experiential profile of a longitudinal study p. 8
PR Krishna Kumar
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83177  PMID:21897637
Context: Allopathic and Ayurvedic physicians collaborated on a study of traditional medicine, which was sponsored by the World Health Organization. Aims: The aim of the study was to test the efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Settings and Design: This study was conducted at the Ayurvedic Trust, Coimbatore, India. Materials and Methods: In this unique study of classical Ayurvedic treatment for RA, allopathic physicians enrolled a total of 290 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of RA over a 7-year period, and once every 6 weeks evaluated Ayurvedic treatment outcomes on the basis of American Rheumatism Association criteria: grip strength, walking time, number of swollen and painful joints, joint count, functional class, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and rheumatoid factor. Ayurvedic physicians administered individualized treatment, closely adhering to principles set forth in classical Ayurvedic texts. The duration of treatment varied from 1 to 6 months. Statistical Analysis Used: Due to limitations in computer technology in the 1970s, the data were not computerized. Therefore, data for 12 months at a time were analyzed, using repeated measures t-test. Measures of central tendency (means) and probability values were reported. Results from the patients enrolled and discharged at the end of the first year of the study (N = 33) are presented in this paper. Results: There was statistically significant improvement in all parameters from admission to discharge. Conclusions: The results indicated that classical Ayurvedic treatment was effective in this first cohort of patients who completed treatment. Even patients with severe functional limitations showed significant improvement. Although there was no control group, the results are positive enough to warrant further study of classical Ayurvedic treatment for RA in controlled trials.
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Blood compatibility studies of Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma), an Ayurvedic drug Highly accessed article p. 14
Willi Paul, Chandra Prakash Sharma
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83183  PMID:21897638
Swarna bhasma (gold bhasma) preparations are widely utilized as therapeutic agents. However, in vitro biological evaluations of bhasma preparations are needed along with the physicochemical characterization for present day standardization of metallic bhasma preparations to meet the criteria that supports its use. Therefore, an attempt has been made to evaluate the protein adsorption, blood compatibility and complement activation potential of two batches of Swarna bhasma preparation, along with its physicochemical characterization. The particle size, morphology, elemental analysis, and in vitro cytotoxicity were evaluated initially. Red blood cell hemolysis, aggregation studies with blood cells, protein adsorption, complement C3 adsorption, platelet activation and tight junction permeability in Caco-2 cell line were investigated. The Swarna bhasma preparations with a crystallite size of 28-35 nm did not induce any blood cell aggregation or protein adsorption. Activation potential of these preparations towards complement system or platelets was negligible. These particles were also non-cytotoxic. Swarna bhasma particles opened the tight junctions in Caco-2 cell experiments. The results suggest the application of Swarna bhasma preparations as a therapeutic agent in clinical medicine from the biological safety point of view.
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Evaluation of antioxidant potential of Amalakayas Rasayana: A polyherbal Ayurvedic formulation p. 23
S. M. S. Samarakoon, HM Chandola, VJ Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83186  PMID:21897639
Amalakayas Rasayana (AR) is a polyherbal formulation mentioned in Ayurveda to treat aging and age-associated diseases. Being an antiaging drug, AR may have antioxidants and free radical scavenging activity to minimize free radical-induced damage which is a key cause of aging. The methanolic extract of AR was evaluated in vitro for total phenolic and tannin content, free radical scavenging activity, superoxide radical scavenging activity, and reducing power. The total phenolic content was measured using Folin-ciocalteu reagent against gallic acid [relative standard deviation (R2 ) = 0.998]. Total tannin was estimated using the Stephen method and was found to be 2.82% w/w. Free radical scavenging activity was measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl hydrazyl assay and R2 was 1. Superoxide radical scavenging activity was done by ethylene diamine tetra acetate and Nitro Blue Tetrazolium Chloride assays against ascorbic acid and R2 was 0.976 (EC 50 = 77.5 μg/ml). Ferrous reducing power was evaluated by Oyaizu method where R2 was 0.986. All studies showed that AR possesses antioxidant activity. The results of this study suggest that the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of AR may explain its rasayana effect and justify its use as a medicine for age associated diseases.
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The effect of Triphala and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth p. 29
Neeti Bajaj, Shobha Tandon
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83188  PMID:21897640
The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of a mouthwash prepared with Triphala on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth and compare it with commercially available Chlorhexidine mouthwash. This study was conducted after ethics committee approval and written consent from guardians (and assent from the children) were obtained. A total of 1431 students in the age group 8-12 years, belonging to classes fourth to seventh, were the subjects for this study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of the subjects was determined using a questionnaire. The students were divided into three groups namely, Group I (n = 457) using Triphala mouthwash (0.6%), Group II (n = 440) using Chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.1%) (positive control), and Group III (n = 412) using distilled water (negative control). The assessment was carried out on the basis of plaque scores, gingival scores, and the microbiological analysis (Streptococcus and lactobacilli counts). Statistical analysis for plaque and gingival scores was conducted using the paired sample t-test (for intragroup) and the Tukey's test (for intergroup conducted along with analysis of variance test). For the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test were applied for intragroup and intergroup comparison, respectively. All the tests were carried out using the SPSS software. Both the Group I and Group II showed progressive decrease in plaque scores from baseline to the end of 9 months; however, for Group III increase in plaque scores from the baseline to the end of 9 months was noted. Both Group I and Group II showed similar effect on gingival health. There was inhibitory effect on microbial counts except Lactobacillus where Triphala had shown better results than Chlorhexidine. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the Chlorhexidine mouthwash.
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Pharmacognostical evaluation of Barringtonia acutangula leaf p. 37
Dharamaraj Padmavathi, Lakshmi Susheela, Rajkishore Vijaya Bharathi
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83189  PMID:21897641
Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn. (Family: Lecythidaceae) is an evergreen tree with simple, alternate leaves, long pendulous racemes, dark scarlet flowers, and ellipsoid to ovoid berries containing one ovoid black seed. The present study deals with a detailed pharmacognostical study on the leaf of the crude drug, B. acutangula. Morphoanatomy of the leaf was studied using light and confocal microscopy and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines on quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Literature reveals that the phytoconstituents like tanginol, barrinic acid, and barringenic acid are present in the wood and fruits of this plant. Our preliminary phytochemical studies of the powdered leaves revealed the presence of terpenes, flavanoids, carbohydrates, tannins, steroids, and glycosides. The physico-chemical, morphological, histological parameters, and High Performance-Thin Layer Chromatographic (HPTLC) profile presented in this paper may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of B. acutangula and can possibly help to differentiate the drug from its other species and the pharmacognostic profile of the leaves presented here will assist in standardization viz., quality, purity, and sample identification.
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Standardization and quality control parameters of Dashanga Kwatha ghana tablet: An Ayurvedic formulation p. 42
Umapati C Baragi, Pramod C Baragi, Mahesh K Vyas, Vinay J Shukla
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83190  PMID:21897642
Herbal medicines have a long therapeutic history and are still serving many of the health needs of a large population of the world. However, the quality control and quality assurance still remains a challenge because of the high variability of chemical components involved. Herbal drugs, singularly and in combinations, contain numerous compounds in complex matrices in which no single active constituent is responsible for the overall efficacy. This creates a challenge in establishing quality control standards and standardization of finished herbal drugs. Many preparations have been mentioned in Ayurvedic text books for the treatment of Urdhwaga Amlapitta (non-ulcer dyspepsia). Dashanga Kwatha is one such known formulation. In this study, Dashanga Kwatha was converted into tablet form to increase the shelf life, make it easy to dispense, for dose fixation, etc. The Dashanga Kwatha Ghana tablet was subjected to organoleptic analysis, phytochemical analysis, and qualitative analysis to detect the presence of various functional groups, and to high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) examination by optimizing the solvent systems. The investigation revealed the presence of tannins, mucilage, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, saponins, glycosides, flavonoids and carbohydrates mainly.
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Why and how? Addressing to the two most pertinent questions about pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda p. 48
Sanjeev Rastogi
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83187  PMID:21897643
Pharmacovigilance is the outcome of a natural and implied willingness of a physician to ensure safety to his patient. This is a discipline in medicine which pragmatises the principle of first do no harm towards a wider and systematic application in clinical practice. It is however important to understand that despite of its huge potential in ensuring a safe practice of medicine through knowledge of avoidable causes of adversities, its path has never been easy. Applying principles of pharmacovigilance into the realm of traditional medicine particularly to Ayurveda is even more difficult for the issues of why and how of pharmacovigilance in light of historical practice and anecdotal evidences of safety in Ayurveda. Application of pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda thereby demands a careful and thoughtful observation of its needs and its methods of application in order to to maximize its impacts to ensure the patient safety to every extent possible.
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Shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome): A case study p. 53
KS Dhiman
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83185  PMID:21897644
Abstract Ashru-tear secretion is an integral component of the ocular surface physiology; when compromised (quantitatively or qualitatively) lead to shushkakshipaka (dry eye syndrome) with various ocular discomfort symptoms and ultimately the patient may land in corneal blindness.Local, systemic and environmental factors play a major role in its pathogenisis. Vata& Pitta/Rakta vitiation as per Ayurvedic view point are the major contributing pathological factors in its manifestation. Contrary to the available modern medical treatment / management regimen; Ayurveda propounds a systematic systemic/ holistic treatment approach in the treatment of dry eye syndrome. A patient of shushkakshipaka was treated with such treatment protocol, is presented as a case study in this article
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Treatment of relapsed undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M0) with Ayurvedic therapy p. 56
Balendu Prakash
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83184  PMID:21897645
A 16-year-old boy was detected with acute myeloid leukemia (AML - M0) with bone marrow pathology showing 85% blasts in February 07, 1997. He received two cycles of induction chemotherapy (3+7 protocol) with daunomycin and cytosar, following which he achieved incomplete remission with bone marrow aspirate showing 14% blasts. Subsequently, the patient received two cycles of high-dose cytosine arabinoside Ara-C and achieved remission. However, his disease relapsed on August 29, 1997. Peripheral blood smear showed 6% blast cells and bone marrow showed 40% blast cells. The patient refused further chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplant and volunteered for Ayurvedic therapy (AYT) advocated by the author from September 09, 1997. Bone marrow studies done after six months of AYT indicated that the disease was in remission. The AYT was continued for five years and stopped. Thereafter, the patient received intermittent maintenance AYT for three months in the next two years. At present, the patient is normal and healthy and has completed 12 years of disease-free survival with AYT.
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Effect of insulin plant leaves on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia p. 60
Saket M Ghaisas
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83174  PMID:21897647
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Seminal gold and infertility p. 60
Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83175  PMID:21897646
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Authors' reply p. 61
Vinod Jain, Anurag Rai, Samir Misra, KM Singh
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Revisiting survival analysis p. 62
Sanjeev Sarmukaddam
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83178  PMID:21897649
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Effect of Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum Linn) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits p. 64
D. B. A. Narayana
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83179  PMID:21897650
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Authors' reply p. 65
Jyoti Sethi, Mridul Yadav, Sushma Sood, Kiran Dahiya, Veena Singh
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A survey of the labeling information provided for Ayurvedic drugs marketed in India p. 65
D. B. A. Narayana
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83181  PMID:21897651
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Ayurveda support for health prevention in post crisis, nuclear denotation p. 66
Viroj Wiwanitkit
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83182  PMID:21897653
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