International Journal of Ayurveda Research International Journal of Ayurveda Research
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) - validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies
Avnish K Upadhyay, Kaushal Kumar, Arvind Kumar, Hari S Mishra
April-June 2010, 1(2):112-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64405  PMID:20814526
T. cordifolia (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem found throughout India. It is a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes, such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Various properties of T. cordifolia, described in ancient texts of Ayurveda, like Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana, Tridoshshamaka, Dahnashaka, Mehnashaka, Kasa-swasahara, Pandunashaka, Kamla-Kushta-Vataraktanashaka, Jwarhara, Krimihara, Prameha, Arshnashaka, Kricch-Hridroganashak, etc., are acquiring scientific validity through modern research adopting "reverse pharmacological" approach. Potential medicinal properties reported by scientific research include anti-diabetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, antimalarial, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. This review brings together various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports.
  17 7,723 2,018
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate
Manish Kumar Goel, Pardeep Khanna, Jugal Kishore
October-December 2010, 1(4):274-278
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76794  PMID:21455458
Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.
  15 3,286 1,247
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus against experimentally induced anxiety, depression and convulsions in rodents
Varsha J Galani, Bharatkumar G Patel
April-June 2010, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64412  PMID:20814521
To investigate the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of the Sphaeranthus indicus (SIE) against experimentally induced anxiety, depression and convulsions in rodents. The SIE (100, 200, 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used in elevated plus maze, open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests in mice. The same doses were also used to evaluate its anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in rats. SIE was found to increase the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms of the maze at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., indicating its anxiolytic activity. On the other hand, higher doses of SIE (200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased open arm entries and time spent in the open arms of the maze in the elevated plus maze test indicating an absence of anxiolytic activity. However, this effect could have been related to a decrease in the locomotor activity of the mice and not to an anxiogenic effect, as indicated by the reduction in the total number of entries in the elevated plus maze. SIE also (at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased locomotor activity but did not affect emotional activity parameters in the open field test, suggesting a possible central nervous depressant activity. SIE also increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg but did not significantly modify the activity in the tail suspension test. SIE protected rats against MES-induced convulsions and mice against PTZ-induced convulsions. Sphaeranthus indicus demonstrated anxiolytic, central nervous depressant, and anticonvulsant activities in rodents, thus supporting the folk medicinal use of this plant in nervous disorders.
  11 3,896 974
A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation
Mradu Gupta, BP Shaw, A Mukherjee
April-June 2010, 1(2):106-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64401  PMID:20814525
The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic-analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O-H structure at 2940 cm−1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid).
  9 5,020 791
Effect of Triphala mouthwash on the caries status
Shobha Tandon, Kunal Gupta, Sugandhi Rao, KJ Malagi
April-June 2010, 1(2):93-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64413  PMID:20814522
Nearly 60-70% of the child Indian population suffers from dental caries. Mouth rinsing is the most cost effective method of preventing dental caries. 'Triphala' has been a classic Ayurveda remedy, probably the best known among all Ayurvedic compounds. This study was conducted on 1501 students in the age group of 8-12 years with the aim of determining the effect of Triphala mouthwash on prevention of dental caries (manifest caries) as well as incipient carious lesions, and also comparing the effect of Triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The incipient caries was recorded at 3, 6, 9 months intervals and manifest caries at 9 months interval. No significant increase in the DMFS scores was found at the end of 9 months. Also, there was no significant increase in the incipient caries score towards the conclusion of the study. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the chlorhexidine mouthwashes.
  9 4,180 1,309
Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults
Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Biren Shah, Shweta Shenoy, Suresh Chauhan, GS Lavekar, MM Padhi
July-September 2010, 1(3):144-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72485  PMID:21170205
Introduction: Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective: There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Materials and Methods: Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration . Observations: Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Withania somnifera may therefore be useful for generalized weakness and to improve speed and lower limb muscular strength and neuro-muscular co-ordination. Terminalia arjuna may prove useful to improve cardio-vascular endurance and lowering systolic blood pressure. Both drugs appear to be safe for young adults when given for mentioned dosage and duration.
  9 5,510 1,435
Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization
Sudhaldev Mohaptra, CB Jha
April-June 2010, 1(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64409  PMID:20814520
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda . The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS 2 , and SM bhasma contains Fe 2 O 3 , FeS 2 , CuS and SiO 2 . Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
  8 5,703 1,550
REVIEW ARTICLES
Building bridges between Ayurveda and Modern Science
Sanjeev Rastogi
January-March 2010, 1(1):41-46
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59943  PMID:20532097
The recent decade has witnessed many landmark observations, which have added to the scientific credentials of Ayurveda.It is however believed that instead of a retrospective approach of looking into the Ayurveda through the scientific reappraisals, a prospective approach through primary understanding of Ayurveda followed by a search into scientific linkage would be more appealing. This article brings the simplified yet scientific decoding of the core concepts of Ayurveda that form the framework of this ancient science of health.
  8 5,517 1,893
EDUCATION FORUM
Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education: A survey
Kishor Patwardhan, Sangeeta Gehlot, Girish Singh, H.C.S Rathore
January-March 2010, 1(1):49-54
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59945  PMID:20532099
In the present day scenario, Ayurveda is globally being perceived in several contradictory ways. Poor quality of Ayurveda graduates produced as a result of poorly structured and poorly regulated education system is at least one of the important factors responsible for this scenario. The present study was carried out to evaluate the 'Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education' and is based on the responses of Ayurvedic students and Ayurvedic teachers from various educational institutions of India to a methodically validated questionnaire. As the study indicates, the poor standard of Ayurvedic education in India is definitely a cause of concern. The curriculum of Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery (BAMS) course of studies is required to be reviewed and restructured. The syllabi are required to be updated with certain relevant topics like laws governing the intellectual property rights, basic procedures of standardization of medicinal products, fundamental methods of evaluating the toxicity of the medicinal products, essentials of healthcare management and the basics of cultivation and marketing of medicinal plants. Furthermore, the study suggests that the Ayurvedic academicians are required to be trained in standard methods of research and documentation skills, and the educational institutions are required to be encouraged to contribute their share in building up the evidence base for Ayurveda in the form of quality education and research.
  8 5,583 1,164
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Mukesh S Sikarwar, MB Patil
October-December 2010, 1(4):199-204
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76780  PMID:21455444
The antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata ( Family: Leguminosae) leaf extracts was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of P. pinnata and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. pinnata were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. P. pinnata ethanolic extract (PPEE) and aqueous extract (PPAE) showed significant (P < 0.001) antidiabetic activity. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose levels of these extracts on 7th day of the study were 155.83 ± 11.211mg/dl (PPEE) and 132.00 ± 4.955mg/dl (PPAE) in comparison of diabetic control (413.50 ± 4.752mg/dl) and chloroform extract (210.83 ± 14.912mg/dl). In glucose loaded rats, PPEE exhibited glucose level of 164.50 ± 6.350mg/dl after 30 min and 156.50 ± 4.089mg/dl after 90 min, whereas the levels in PPAE treated animals were 176 ± 3.724mg/dl after 30 min and 110.33 ± 6.687mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug.
  8 5,627 1,286
The effect of Triphala and Chlorhexidine mouthwash on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth
Neeti Bajaj, Shobha Tandon
January-March 2011, 2(1):29-36
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.83188  PMID:21897640
The objective of this study was to ascertain the effects of a mouthwash prepared with Triphala on dental plaque, gingival inflammation, and microbial growth and compare it with commercially available Chlorhexidine mouthwash. This study was conducted after ethics committee approval and written consent from guardians (and assent from the children) were obtained. A total of 1431 students in the age group 8-12 years, belonging to classes fourth to seventh, were the subjects for this study. The Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of the subjects was determined using a questionnaire. The students were divided into three groups namely, Group I (n = 457) using Triphala mouthwash (0.6%), Group II (n = 440) using Chlorhexidine mouthwash (0.1%) (positive control), and Group III (n = 412) using distilled water (negative control). The assessment was carried out on the basis of plaque scores, gingival scores, and the microbiological analysis (Streptococcus and lactobacilli counts). Statistical analysis for plaque and gingival scores was conducted using the paired sample t-test (for intragroup) and the Tukey's test (for intergroup conducted along with analysis of variance test). For the Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus counts, Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney test were applied for intragroup and intergroup comparison, respectively. All the tests were carried out using the SPSS software. Both the Group I and Group II showed progressive decrease in plaque scores from baseline to the end of 9 months; however, for Group III increase in plaque scores from the baseline to the end of 9 months was noted. Both Group I and Group II showed similar effect on gingival health. There was inhibitory effect on microbial counts except Lactobacillus where Triphala had shown better results than Chlorhexidine. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the Chlorhexidine mouthwash.
  8 4,698 1,402
Effect of the insulin plant (Costus igneus) leaves on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia
Akhila J Shetty, Divya Choudhury, Rejeesh , Vinod Nair, Maria Kuruvilla, Shashidhar Kotian
April-June 2010, 1(2):100-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64396  PMID:20814523
Costus igneus , commonly known as insulin plant in India, belongs to the family Costaceae. Consumption of the leaves are believed to lower blood glucose levels, and diabetics who consumed the leaves of this plant did report a fall in their blood glucose levels. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of the leaves of Costus igneus on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in male Wistar rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6) were treated with 10 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone subcutaneously for 20 days. From day 11 to day 20, different groups received 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day of powdered leaves of Costus igneus in distilled water orally or Glibenclamide 500 μg/kg orally. On the 20th day, after overnight fasting, a retro-orbital puncture was performed for obtaining blood samples to estimate the fasting blood glucose level, and the same procedure was followed on the other eye 1 hour after a glucose load of 2.5 g/kg orally for estimation of post-glucose load blood glucose levels. Fasting blood sugar and postglucose load blood sugar levels were raised in the group that received dexamethasone when compared to normal controls (P < 0.001), whereas 250 and 500 mg/kg powdered leaf of Costus igneus and Glibenclamide 500 μg/kg decreased the dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). The leaves of Costus igneus reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them towards normal, in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in rats.
  7 10,162 1,302
Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn
Shraddha Anwikar, Milind Bhitre
July-September 2010, 1(3):167-171
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72489  PMID:21170209
Introduction: Nonsteroidal and steroidal drugs are generally used as a part of drug therapy in inflammation. However, these drugs have severe side-effects like nausea and vomiting. Therefore, there is a need to identify anti-inflammatory compounds that will be effective with a better safety profile. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn has many therapeutic uses mentioned in Ayurveda and therefore we aimed to study its anti-inflammatory activity both alone and in combination. Materials and Methods: The water extract of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and dried pulp of Cassia fistula Linn was prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts was investigated using the carragenan-induced paw edema model in rats individually and in two different combinations. ED50 of both the extracts singly and in combination were calculated by dose-response curves, and this information was then plotted on the isobologram. The interaction index of the extracts was also investigated to determine whether both the extracts in combination show synergistic or antagonistic or additive effects. Results: It was observed that extracts of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum showed more anti-inflammatory activity than dried fruits of Cassia fistula Linn. Both the extracts showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity at 500 mg/kg dose. Among the different dose combinations of both the extracts, the 1:1 combination at the 500 mg/kg dose showed maximum percentage inhibition of 75%, which was comparable with the positive control, diclofenac sodium, which showed 81% inhibition. Conclusion: As revealed by the isobolograms, both the combinations fell below the additivity line, which indicates synergistic interactions between Solanum xanthocarpum and Cassia fistula extracts. Interaction indices of both combinations were observed to be <1, which re-demonstrated the synergistic effects of the combination.
  7 1,965 482
Efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic medicines: Recommending equivalence trial design and proposing safety index
Sanjeev Sarmukaddam, Arvind Chopra, Girish Tillu
July-September 2010, 1(3):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72491  PMID:21170211
Ayurvedic drugs have begun to be evaluated in controlled clinical trials. The trials, often placebo controlled, are usually designed to demonstrate superiority. Though the results have been usually reported as encouraging, statistical significance has been elusive. In this melee to show efficacy, several positive results related to safety and other purported advantages with Ayurvedic drugs, including improved quality of life, easy drug availability and less cost, get drowned. Though safety is the prime concern, efficacy ultimately matters in trials. Excellent safety profile offset modest efficacy, especially for long-term management of chronic difficult to treat disorders. There is a trade-off between efficacy and safety but we have no means to put them together in a mathematical evaluation to judge the overall performance of a drug. However, we need more suitable modern science methods/techniques to unravel the true therapeutic role of Ayurvedic drugs. We propose "equivalence trials" using modern medicine benchmark as a comparator and a "safety/tolerability index" on this perspective. We believe that several Ayurvedic drugs are capable of demonstrating equal efficacy but superior safety. Our concept may also be applicable for pragmatic trials that are more suitable for Ayurvedic therapy.
  7 1,995 520
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review
Varsha J Galani, BG Patel, DG Rana
October-December 2010, 1(4):247-253
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76790  PMID:21455454
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.
  7 3,299 748
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Diashis, a polyherbal formulation, in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats
Tushar K Bera, Debasis De, Kausik Chatterjee, Kazi M Ali, Debidas Ghosh
January-March 2010, 1(1):18-24
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59939  PMID:20532093
This study focuses on the effect of 'Diashis', a polyherbal formulation composed of eight medicinal plants for the management of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats. As oxidative stress is one of the consequences of diabetes, the activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes and metabolic enzymes were evaluated. Treatment with 'Diashis' in STZ-induced diabetic rats resulted in a significant (P < 0.01) recovery in the activities of hepatic hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphatase along with correction in the levels of fasting blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and liver and skeletal muscle glycogen. The oxidative stress status in the liver was corrected by 'Diashis,' which was highlighted by the recovery in the activities of catalase, peroxidase, and glutathione-S-transferase along with the correction in the quantity of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and conjugated diene. 'Diashis' was not found to have any metabolic toxicity. The antidiabetic effects of 'Diashis' were compared with those of the antidiabetic drug, 'Glibenclamide'.
  6 3,343 909
Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits
Jyoti Sethi, Mridul Yadav, Sushma Sood, Kiran Dahiya, Veena Singh
October-December 2010, 1(4):208-210
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76782  PMID:21455446
Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.
  5 4,194 1,054
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Sample size calculation
Prashant Kadam, Supriya Bhalerao
January-March 2010, 1(1):55-57
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59946  PMID:20532100
  4 4,149 1,684
CASE REPORT
Subacute thyroiditis following ginger (Zingiber officinale) consumption
Suzan Sanavi, Reza Afshar
January-March 2010, 1(1):47-48
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59944  PMID:20532098
A woman with subacute thyroiditis following ginger consumption is presented. The diagnosis was confirmed by physical examination and laboratory tests, in two distinct episodes. The patient was cured and recommended to refuse ginger consumption.
  4 7,588 875
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Quality assessment of different marketed brands of Dasamoolaristam, an Ayurvedic formulation
V Kalaiselvan, Ankur Kalpeshkumar Shah, Falgun Babulal Patel, Chainesh Narendrabhai Shah, M Kalaivani, A Rajasekaran
January-March 2010, 1(1):10-13
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59937  PMID:20532091
Arista is a classical Ayurvedic preparation that is typically used as a digestive and cardiotonic. The present Investigation evaluated five different brands of Dasamoolaristam available in the market as per WHO and Indian Pharmacopoeial specifications. Various physicochemical parameters such as alcohol-soluble extractive, water-soluble extractive, total ash, acid-insoluble ash, total solid, and alcohol content were determined. The present investigation reveals that all the preparations contain acceptable levels of alcohol (less than 12% v/v). However, the preparations were found to contain unacceptable limits of microbial load although all showed the absence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Staphylococcus aureus.
  4 3,698 1,167
GUEST EDITORIAL
Ayurveda: The time to experiment
MS Valiathan, Urmila Thatte
January-March 2010, 1(1):3-3
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59935  PMID:20532089
  4 2,589 1,085
Exploring larger evidence-base for contemporary Ayurveda
Ram Harsh Singh
April-June 2010, 1(2):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64394  PMID:20814517
  4 2,143 659
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats
Shriram S Savrikar, Vilas Dole, B Ravishankar, Vinay J Shukla
April-June 2010, 1(2):67-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64399  PMID:20814518
This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
  3 5,556 934
Pharmaceutical preparation of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna: A herbal remedy for puerperal women
Khushbu Shukla, Manjari Dwivedi, Neeraj Kumar
January-March 2010, 1(1):25-29
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59940  PMID:20532094
Background: In the last few decades, there has been exponential growth in the field of herbal remedies. Pharmacopoeial preparations like avleha or paka (semi-solid), swarasa (expressed juice), kalka (mass), him (cold infusion) and phanta (hot infusion), kwatha (decoction) and churna (powder) form the backbone of Ayurvedic formulations. Newer guidelines for standardization, manufacture, and quality control, and scientifically rigorous research will be necessary for traditional treatments. This traditional knowledge can serve as powerful search engine that will greatly facilitate drug discovery. Purpose: The aim of the present study is to standardize Saubhagya Shunthi Paka in churna (powder) form. The powder form makes this traditional drug more stable for long-term storage and hence, easier to preserve. Materials and Methods: Saubhagya Shunthi Paka is an ayurvedic formulation containing Shunthi (Zingiber officinalis) as one of its chief ingredients. The basic preparation of this drug is a semisolid. We checked the microbial load and nutrient values (using International Standard IS and Association of Official Analytical chemists AOAC methods) Results: The powdered form of Saubhagya Shunthi Churna yielded a weight loss of approximately 17.64% of the total weight of ingredients. The total energy of Churna (calculated based on nutrient content) was found higher over Paka. Conclusion: Saubhagya Shunthi Churna may be a good therapeutic and dietary medicine for Indian women, which may be easily prepared at home.
  3 3,747 1,062
Pharmacognostic standardization of leaves of Calotropis procera (Ait.) R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae)
Y Murti, B Yogi, D Pathak
January-March 2010, 1(1):14-17
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.59938  PMID:20532092
Calotropis procera, belonging to the Asclepidaceae family, is present more or less throughout India and in other warm, dry places such as, Warizistan, Afghanistan, Egypt, and tropical Africa. Its common names are Akra, Akanal, and Madar. The leaves of Calotropis procera are said to be valuable as an antidote for snake bite, sinus fistula, rheumatism, mumps, burn injuries, and body pain. The leaves of Calotropis procera are also used to treat jaundice. A study on Calotropis procera leaf samples extracted the air-dried leaf powder with different solvents such as petroleum-ether (60-80ºC), benzene, chloroform, ethanol, and sterile water. Preliminary phytochemical analysis was done long with measurement of the leaf constants, fluorescence characteristics, and extractive values. Quantitative estimation of total ash value, acid insoluble ash, and water- soluble ash may serve as useful indices for identification of the powdered drug. Histochemical studies which reveal rows of cylindrical palisade cells and, vascular bundles may also serve as useful indices for identification of the tissues. These studies suggested that the observed pharmacognostic and physiochemical parameters are of great value in quality control and formulation development of Calotropis procera.
  3 4,198 1,379
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