International Journal of Ayurveda Research International Journal of Ayurveda Research
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   2010| April-June  | Volume 1 | Issue 2  
    Online since June 15, 2010

 
 
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REVIEW ARTICLE
Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Hook. f. and Thoms. (Guduchi) - validation of the Ayurvedic pharmacology through experimental and clinical studies
Avnish K Upadhyay, Kaushal Kumar, Arvind Kumar, Hari S Mishra
April-June 2010, 1(2):112-121
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64405  PMID:20814526
T. cordifolia (Guduchi) is a large, glabrous, perennial, deciduous, climbing shrub of weak and fleshy stem found throughout India. It is a widely used plant in folk and Ayurvedic systems of medicine. The chemical constituents reported from this shrub belong to different classes, such as alkaloids, diterpenoid lactones, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoid, phenolics, aliphatic compounds and polysaccharides. Various properties of T. cordifolia, described in ancient texts of Ayurveda, like Rasayana, Sangrahi, Balya, Agnideepana, Tridoshshamaka, Dahnashaka, Mehnashaka, Kasa-swasahara, Pandunashaka, Kamla-Kushta-Vataraktanashaka, Jwarhara, Krimihara, Prameha, Arshnashaka, Kricch-Hridroganashak, etc., are acquiring scientific validity through modern research adopting "reverse pharmacological" approach. Potential medicinal properties reported by scientific research include anti-diabetic, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, anti-arthritic, antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-stress, anti-leprotic, antimalarial, hepato-protective, immuno-modulatory and anti-neoplastic activities. This review brings together various properties and medicinal uses of T. cordifolia described in Ayurveda, along with phytochemical and pharmacological reports.
  12 7,671 2,008
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Sphaeranthus indicus against experimentally induced anxiety, depression and convulsions in rodents
Varsha J Galani, Bharatkumar G Patel
April-June 2010, 1(2):87-92
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64412  PMID:20814521
To investigate the effects of a hydroalcoholic extract of the Sphaeranthus indicus (SIE) against experimentally induced anxiety, depression and convulsions in rodents. The SIE (100, 200, 500 mg/kg, p.o.) was used in elevated plus maze, open field, forced swimming, and tail suspension tests in mice. The same doses were also used to evaluate its anticonvulsant effect on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsions in mice and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced convulsions in rats. SIE was found to increase the number of entries and the time spent in the open arms of the maze at a dose of 100 mg/kg, p.o., indicating its anxiolytic activity. On the other hand, higher doses of SIE (200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased open arm entries and time spent in the open arms of the maze in the elevated plus maze test indicating an absence of anxiolytic activity. However, this effect could have been related to a decrease in the locomotor activity of the mice and not to an anxiogenic effect, as indicated by the reduction in the total number of entries in the elevated plus maze. SIE also (at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg, p.o.) decreased locomotor activity but did not affect emotional activity parameters in the open field test, suggesting a possible central nervous depressant activity. SIE also increased the immobility time in the forced swimming test at an oral dose of 500 mg/kg but did not significantly modify the activity in the tail suspension test. SIE protected rats against MES-induced convulsions and mice against PTZ-induced convulsions. Sphaeranthus indicus demonstrated anxiolytic, central nervous depressant, and anticonvulsant activities in rodents, thus supporting the folk medicinal use of this plant in nervous disorders.
  7 3,879 970
A new glycosidic flavonoid from Jwarhar mahakashay (antipyretic) Ayurvedic preparation
Mradu Gupta, BP Shaw, A Mukherjee
April-June 2010, 1(2):106-111
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64401  PMID:20814525
The aqueous extract of Jwarhar mahakashay Ayurvedic preparation (from the roots of Hemidesmus indicus R. Br., Rubia cordifolia L., Cissampelos pareira L.; fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz., Emblica officinalis Gaertn., Terminalia bellirica Roxb., Vitis vinifera L., Grewia asiatica L., Salvadora persica L. and granules of Saccharum officinarum L.) has been used as a traditional antipyretic. Experimental studies confirmed its antipyretic-analgesic effect with very low ulcerogenicity and toxicity. Flavonoids, glycosides and tannins were later found to be present in the extract. Detailed chemical investigations were undertaken after hydrolysis of extract using spectroscopic and chromatography methods to determine its active chemical constituent. UV-Visible spectroscopy showed absorbance maxima at 220 and 276 nm, while fourier transform infra-red investigations indicated an end carboxylic O-H structure at 2940 cm−1 suggesting the presence of glycoside-linked flavonoids. Thin layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography also confirmed the possibility of at least one major and two minor compounds in this abstract. Detailed examination using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry led to the identification of the principal component as 2-(1-oxopropyl)-benzoic acid, which is quite similar to the active compound found in the standard drug Aspirin (2-acetyl-oxybenzoic acid).
  5 4,983 784
Effect of the insulin plant (Costus igneus) leaves on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia
Akhila J Shetty, Divya Choudhury, Rejeesh , Vinod Nair, Maria Kuruvilla, Shashidhar Kotian
April-June 2010, 1(2):100-102
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64396  PMID:20814523
Costus igneus , commonly known as insulin plant in India, belongs to the family Costaceae. Consumption of the leaves are believed to lower blood glucose levels, and diabetics who consumed the leaves of this plant did report a fall in their blood glucose levels. Objectives: The present study was planned to evaluate the effect of the leaves of Costus igneus on dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in male Wistar rats. Four groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6) were treated with 10 mg/kg/day of dexamethasone subcutaneously for 20 days. From day 11 to day 20, different groups received 100, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day of powdered leaves of Costus igneus in distilled water orally or Glibenclamide 500 μg/kg orally. On the 20th day, after overnight fasting, a retro-orbital puncture was performed for obtaining blood samples to estimate the fasting blood glucose level, and the same procedure was followed on the other eye 1 hour after a glucose load of 2.5 g/kg orally for estimation of post-glucose load blood glucose levels. Fasting blood sugar and postglucose load blood sugar levels were raised in the group that received dexamethasone when compared to normal controls (P < 0.001), whereas 250 and 500 mg/kg powdered leaf of Costus igneus and Glibenclamide 500 μg/kg decreased the dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia (P < 0.01). The leaves of Costus igneus reduced the fasting and postprandial blood sugar levels, bringing them towards normal, in dexamethasone-induced hyperglycemia in rats.
  5 10,083 1,291
Effect of Triphala mouthwash on the caries status
Shobha Tandon, Kunal Gupta, Sugandhi Rao, KJ Malagi
April-June 2010, 1(2):93-99
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64413  PMID:20814522
Nearly 60-70% of the child Indian population suffers from dental caries. Mouth rinsing is the most cost effective method of preventing dental caries. 'Triphala' has been a classic Ayurveda remedy, probably the best known among all Ayurvedic compounds. This study was conducted on 1501 students in the age group of 8-12 years with the aim of determining the effect of Triphala mouthwash on prevention of dental caries (manifest caries) as well as incipient carious lesions, and also comparing the effect of Triphala and chlorhexidine mouthwashes. The incipient caries was recorded at 3, 6, 9 months intervals and manifest caries at 9 months interval. No significant increase in the DMFS scores was found at the end of 9 months. Also, there was no significant increase in the incipient caries score towards the conclusion of the study. It was concluded that there was no significant difference between the Triphala and the chlorhexidine mouthwashes.
  4 4,132 1,300
CASE REPORT
Management of pilonidal sinus by Kshar Sutra, a minimally invasive treatment
Amar P Dwivedi
April-June 2010, 1(2):122-123
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64408  PMID:20814527
A Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work. It is more common in men (as they have more hair) than in women. The most commonly used surgical techniques for this disorder include excision and primary closure and excision with reconstructive flap. However, the risk of recurrence or of developing an infection of the wound after the operation is high. Also, the patient requires longer hospitalization, and the procedure is expensive. There is a similarity between Shalyaj Nadi Vran described in Sushruta Samhita and Pilonidal sinus. Sushruta has advocated a minimally invasive para-surgical treatment, viz., Kshar Sutra procedure, for nadi vran. Hence this therapy was tried in Pilonidal sinus, and is described in this case report. Kshar Sutra treatment not only minimizes complications and recurrence but also enables the patient to resume work quicker and with less discomfort, impact upon body image and self-esteem as well as reduced cost.
  2 5,087 677
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pharmacognostical studies of Hymenodictyon orixence (Roxb.) Mabb. leaf
Mallesh Reddy, Alka A Chaturvedi
April-June 2010, 1(2):103-105
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64400  PMID:20814524
Hymenodictyon orixence is medicinally important plant found in India, Malaysia and Africa. Due to overexploitation the population of this species has decreased very rapidly. The present study includes pharmacognostical examination of this species. It includes morphological, anatomical, chemical and chromo-fingerprinting characters of Hymenodictyon orixence leaf.
  1 1,880 547
A comparative pharmacological investigation of three samples of 'Guduchi ghrita' for adaptogenic activity against forced swimming induced gastric ulceration and hematological changes in albino rats
Shriram S Savrikar, Vilas Dole, B Ravishankar, Vinay J Shukla
April-June 2010, 1(2):67-72
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64399  PMID:20814518
This study was undertaken to investigate the impact of formulation factors and adjuvants on the expression of biological activity of Tinospora cordifolia (Willd.) Miers. The adaptogenic effect of three samples of Guduchi ghrita, prepared using plain ghee (clarified butter) obtained from three different sources was studied in albino rats and compared with expressed juice of stem of Guduchi. The test preparations were evaluated against forced-swimming induced hypothermia, gastric ulceration and changes in the hematological parameters. The test drug given in the form of 'ghrita' produced better effect in comparison to the expressed juice. Among the three 'ghrita' preparations evaluated, only the 'Solapur Guduchi ghrita' (SGG) was found to produce significant inhibition of stress hypothermia and gastric ulceration. The other two preparations 'Nanded Guduchi ghrita' (NGG), and 'Wardha Guduchi ghrita' (WGG) could produce only a marginal effect. In hematological parameters 'Guduchi' juice produced better reversal of the stress-induced changes in comparison to the test 'ghrita' preparations. The present study provides evidence highlighting the importance of formulation factors for the expression of biological activity.
  1 5,526 926
A comparative study of Barron's rubber band ligation with Kshar Sutra ligation in hemorrhoids
Rakhi Singh, Ramesh C Arya, Satinder S Minhas, Anil Dutt
April-June 2010, 1(2):73-81
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64407  PMID:20814519
Despite a long medical history of identification and treatment, hemorrhoids still pose a challenge to the medical fraternity in terms of finding satisfactory cure of the disease. In this study, Kshar Sutra Ligation (KSL), a modality of treatment described in Ayurveda, was compared with Barron's Rubber Band Ligation (RBL) for grade II and grade III hemorrhoids. This study was conducted in 20 adult patients of either sex with grade II and grade III hemorrhoids at two different hospitals. Patients were randomly allotted to two groups of 10 patients each. Group I patients underwent RBL, whereas patients of group II underwent KSL. Guggul-based Apamarga Kshar Sutra was prepared according to the principles laid down in ancient Ayurvedic texts and methodology standardized by IIIM, Jammu and CDRI, Lucknow. Comparative assessment of RBL and KSL was done according to 16 criteria. Although the two procedures were compared on 15 criteria, treatment outcome of grade II and grade III hemorrhoids was decided chiefly on the basis of patient satisfaction index (subjective criterion) and ability of each procedure to deal with prolapse of internal hemorrhoidal masses (objective criterion): Findings in each case were recorded over a follow-up of four weeks (postoperative days 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30). Statistical analysis was done using Student's t test for parametric data and Chi square test & Mann-Whitney test for non-parametric data. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RBL had the advantages of being an OPD procedure requiring no anesthesia and was attended by significantly lesser postoperative recumbency ( P < 0.001 ) and significantly lesser pain ( P < 0.005 on day 1) as compared to KSL. However, Group II (KSL) scored better in terms of treatment outcome. In Group II, there was significantly high (P < 0.05) patient satisfaction index as compared to Group I. Group II reported 100% 'cure' (absence of hemorrhoidal masses even on proctoscopy) of internal hemorrhoidal prolapse as against 80% in Group I (RBL); however, this difference was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). Both the groups were comparable statistically on all other grounds. Kshar Sutra Ligation is a useful form of treatment for Grades II and III internal hemorrhoids.
  - 7,336 858
Physicochemical characterization of Ayurvedic bhasma (Swarna makshika bhasma): An approach to standardization
Sudhaldev Mohaptra, CB Jha
April-June 2010, 1(2):82-86
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64409  PMID:20814520
Swarna makshika [SM], a mineral having various therapeutic uses, has been used since long in Ayurveda . The present study was conducted to generate a fingerprint for raw and processed SM using techniques which can be used by pharmacies. Powdered SM was heated in an iron pan by adding lemon juice for 3 days, till liberation of sulfur fumes stopped. Bhasma of this shuddha SM was obtained by triturating it with shuddha gandhaka and lemon juice. It was then subjected to heat in 09* putas, and for firing in each puta, 4 kg cow dung cakes were used. To assure the quality of bhasma, rasa shastra quality control tests like nischandratva, varitara, amla pariksha, etc., were used. After the bhasma complied with these tests, the bhasma was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis of raw SM and SM bhasma revealed that raw SM contains CuFeS 2 , and SM bhasma contains Fe 2 O 3 , FeS 2 , CuS and SiO 2 . Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) studies showed that the grains in SM bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of size 1-2 microns as compared to the raw SM which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of size 6-8 microns. It may be concluded that raw SM is a complex compound which gets converted into a mixture of simple compounds having very small particle size after the particular process of marana. This is the first report of fingerprinting of SM bhasma prepared using this particular method.
  - 5,617 1,540
EDUCATION FORUM
Ayurveda education: A student's perspective
Namyata Y Pathak
April-June 2010, 1(2):124-127
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64410  PMID:20814528
  - 1,981 560
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Study designs
Shraddha Parab, Supriya Bhalerao
April-June 2010, 1(2):128-131
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64406  PMID:20814529
  - 1,812 684
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Sample size calculation
Younis Abed AL-Wahhab M. Skaik
April-June 2010, 1(2):132-132
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64395  PMID:20814531
  - 1,489 458
Microbial content in Ayurvedic medicine
Reshmi Sarin
April-June 2010, 1(2):132-133
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64397  PMID:20814530
  - 1,403 443
Global challenges of graduate level Ayurvedic education
Sanjeev Rastogi
April-June 2010, 1(2):133-133
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64398  PMID:20814533
  - 1,265 327
Author's reply
Kishor Patwardhan
April-June 2010, 1(2):133-134
PMID:20814532
  - 1,431 256
Subacute thyroiditis following ginger (Zingiber officinale) consumption
Manjusha Karkare
April-June 2010, 1(2):134-134
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64403  PMID:20814534
  - 1,494 423
Author's reply
Suzan Sanavi, Reza Afshar
April-June 2010, 1(2):134-134
PMID:20814535
  - 1,073 226
EDITORIAL
Editorial
Urmila Thatte
April-June 2010, 1(2):63-64
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64393  PMID:20814516
  - 1,518 368
GUEST EDITORIAL
Exploring larger evidence-base for contemporary Ayurveda
Ram Harsh Singh
April-June 2010, 1(2):65-66
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.64394  PMID:20814517
  - 2,114 653
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