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   2010| July-September  | Volume 1 | Issue 3  
    Online since November 12, 2010

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) on physical performance and cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy young adults
Jaspal Singh Sandhu, Biren Shah, Shweta Shenoy, Suresh Chauhan, GS Lavekar, MM Padhi
July-September 2010, 1(3):144-149
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72485  PMID:21170205
Introduction: Several medicinal plants have been described to be beneficial for cardiac ailments in Ayurveda like Ashwagandha and Arjuna. Ashwagandha-categorised as Rasayanas, and described to promote health and longevity and Arjuna primarily for heart ailments. coronary artery disease, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, anginal pain and can be considered as a useful drug for coronary artery disease, hypertension and ischemic cardiomyopathy. Objective: There are no scientific clinical studies showing effect of both these drugs on exercise performance after regular administration when given as supplements The present study was therefore designed and performed to assess the effects of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) and Terminalia arjuna (Arjuna) individually and as a combination on maximum velocity, average absolute and relative Power, balance, maximum oxygen consumption (VO2 max) and blood pressure in humans. Materials and Methods: Forty normal healthy. Subjects (either sex, mean age 20.6 ± 2.5yrs and mean Body Mass Index 21.9 ± 2.2) were recruited after written informed consent was obtained. Institutional Ethics Committee permission was also obtained. Thirty participants were assigned to experimental group of which 10 received standardized root extracts of Withania somnifera, 10 received standardized bark extract of Terminalia arjuna and the rest of the 10 received standardized root extract of Withania somnifera in addition to bark extract of Terminalia arjuna both. Both the drugs were given in the form of capsules (dosage 500mg/day for both the drugs). Ten participants received placebo (capsules filled with flour). All the subjects continued the regimen for 8 weeks. All variables were assessed before and after the course of drug administration . Observations: Our study showed that Withania somnifera increased velocity, power and VO2 max whereas Terminalia arjuna increased VO2 max and lowered resting systolic blood pressure. When given in combination, the improvement was seen in all parameters except balance and diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: Withania somnifera may therefore be useful for generalized weakness and to improve speed and lower limb muscular strength and neuro-muscular co-ordination. Terminalia arjuna may prove useful to improve cardio-vascular endurance and lowering systolic blood pressure. Both drugs appear to be safe for young adults when given for mentioned dosage and duration.
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Study of the synergistic anti-inflammatory activity of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn
Shraddha Anwikar, Milind Bhitre
July-September 2010, 1(3):167-171
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72489  PMID:21170209
Introduction: Nonsteroidal and steroidal drugs are generally used as a part of drug therapy in inflammation. However, these drugs have severe side-effects like nausea and vomiting. Therefore, there is a need to identify anti-inflammatory compounds that will be effective with a better safety profile. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and Cassia fistula Linn has many therapeutic uses mentioned in Ayurveda and therefore we aimed to study its anti-inflammatory activity both alone and in combination. Materials and Methods: The water extract of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad and Wendl and dried pulp of Cassia fistula Linn was prepared. The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts was investigated using the carragenan-induced paw edema model in rats individually and in two different combinations. ED50 of both the extracts singly and in combination were calculated by dose-response curves, and this information was then plotted on the isobologram. The interaction index of the extracts was also investigated to determine whether both the extracts in combination show synergistic or antagonistic or additive effects. Results: It was observed that extracts of dried fruits of Solanum xanthocarpum showed more anti-inflammatory activity than dried fruits of Cassia fistula Linn. Both the extracts showed maximum anti-inflammatory activity at 500 mg/kg dose. Among the different dose combinations of both the extracts, the 1:1 combination at the 500 mg/kg dose showed maximum percentage inhibition of 75%, which was comparable with the positive control, diclofenac sodium, which showed 81% inhibition. Conclusion: As revealed by the isobolograms, both the combinations fell below the additivity line, which indicates synergistic interactions between Solanum xanthocarpum and Cassia fistula extracts. Interaction indices of both combinations were observed to be <1, which re-demonstrated the synergistic effects of the combination.
  3 1,944 474
Efficacy and safety of Ayurvedic medicines: Recommending equivalence trial design and proposing safety index
Sanjeev Sarmukaddam, Arvind Chopra, Girish Tillu
July-September 2010, 1(3):175-180
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72491  PMID:21170211
Ayurvedic drugs have begun to be evaluated in controlled clinical trials. The trials, often placebo controlled, are usually designed to demonstrate superiority. Though the results have been usually reported as encouraging, statistical significance has been elusive. In this melee to show efficacy, several positive results related to safety and other purported advantages with Ayurvedic drugs, including improved quality of life, easy drug availability and less cost, get drowned. Though safety is the prime concern, efficacy ultimately matters in trials. Excellent safety profile offset modest efficacy, especially for long-term management of chronic difficult to treat disorders. There is a trade-off between efficacy and safety but we have no means to put them together in a mathematical evaluation to judge the overall performance of a drug. However, we need more suitable modern science methods/techniques to unravel the true therapeutic role of Ayurvedic drugs. We propose "equivalence trials" using modern medicine benchmark as a comparator and a "safety/tolerability index" on this perspective. We believe that several Ayurvedic drugs are capable of demonstrating equal efficacy but superior safety. Our concept may also be applicable for pragmatic trials that are more suitable for Ayurvedic therapy.
  3 1,971 518
Antioxidant and hypolipidemic activity of Kumbhajatu in hypercholesterolemic rats
Rumi Ghosh, Parag P Kadam, Vilasrao J Kadam
July-September 2010, 1(3):159-162
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72487  PMID:21170207
Objective: To study the efficacy of Kumbhajatu in reducing the cholesterol levels and as an antioxidant in hypercholesterolemic rats. Materials and Methods: Hypercholesterolemia was induced in normal rats by including 2% w/w cholesterol, 1% w/w sodium cholate and 2.5% w/w coconut oil in the normal diet. Powdered form of Kumbhajatu was administered as feed supplement at 250 and 500 mg/kg dose levels to the hypercholesterolemic rats. Plasma lipid profile, hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, catalase activity, reduced glutathione and extent of lipid peroxidation in the form of malondialdehyde were estimated using standard methods. Results: Feed supplementation with 250 and 500 mg/kg of Kumbhajatu resulted in a significant decline in plasma lipid profiles. The feed supplementation increased the concentration of catalase, SOD, glutathione and HDL-c significantly in both the experimental groups (250 and 500 mg/kg). On the other hand, the concentration of malondialdehyde, cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL-c and VLDL in these groups (250 and 500 mg/kg) were decreased significantly. Conclusion: The present study demonstrates that addition of Kumbhajatu powder at 250 and 500 mg/kg level as a feed supplement reduces the plasma lipid levels and also decreases lipid peroxidation.
  2 2,184 681
Antihyperglycemic activity of Tectona grandis Linn. bark extract on alloxan induced diabetes in rats
SB Varma, DL Jaybhaye
July-September 2010, 1(3):163-166
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72488  PMID:21170208
Tectona Grandis Linn.(saag - tick wood), an indigenous medicinal plant, has a folk reputation among the Indian herbs as a hypoglycemic agent. The present study was carried out to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic effect of T. grandis Linn. bark extract in control and alloxan-diabetic rats. Oral administration of the bark suspension of T. grandis (2.5 and 5 g/kg body wt.) for 30 days resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose (from 250 ± 6.5 to 50 ± 2.5 mg/dL). Thus, the present study clearly shows that the T. Grandis Linn. bark extract exerts anti-hyperglycemic activity.
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Seminal gold content in healthy fertile men in India
Vinod Jain, Anurag Rai, Samir Misra, KM Singh
July-September 2010, 1(3):172-174
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72490  PMID:21170210
Objective: Since centuries Ayurveda, mentions the role of gold in the treatment of male infertility 'Swarna Bhasma' (Ash of gold) has been used with good results by Ayurvedic practitioners in the treatment of infertility. Hence, a study was planned to estimate gold in whole semen by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Materials and Methods: Whole semen from 11 healthy males of proved fertility from Lucknow (India) was analyzed for gold content by Atomic Absorption spectrophotometry at wavelength 242.8 nm with Hollow Cathode Gold Lamp. Prior to analysis, all the samples were subjected to digestion procedure, achieved by treating them with mixture of concentrated Nitric acid and concentrated Perchloric acid in 6: 1 ratio. Observation: On analysis all semen samples were found to contain gold ranging from 0.36 to 1.98 μg/ml with a mean value of 0.88 μg/ml and a standard deviation of 0.51 μg/ml. Conclusion: In the present study, gold was estimated after complete digestion (oxidation of organic matters; hence, whatever amount of gold detected, denotes the levels in seminal plasma as well as the sperm itself) in whole semen (seminal plasma and sperm). It seems that the hypothesis made for presence of gold in sperm might be true. However, the literature available in this connection is very scanty and further studies are needed for scientific documentation of gold in male infertility.
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CASE REPORTS
Pilonidal sinus (Nadi vrana): A case study
Pradeep Shinde, Hemant Toshikhane
July-September 2010, 1(3):181-182
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72492  PMID:21170212
Pilonidal sinus (PNS) occurs in the cleavage between the buttocks (natal cleft) and can cause discomfort, embarrassment and absence from work for thousands of young people (mostly men) annually. The incidence of the disease is calculated to be 26 per 100,000 people. It occurs 2.2 times more often in men than in women. Age at presentation is 21 years for men and 19 years for women this case report describes a 22-year-old man with pilonidal sinus who was treated with ksharasutra.
  1 1,806 403
Overdose effect of aconite containing ayurvedic medicine ('Mahashankha Vati')
Ashok Kumar Panda, Saroj Kumar Debnath
July-September 2010, 1(3):183-186
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72493  PMID:21170213
There are chances that the use of larger than recommended dose of Ayurvedic medicines containing aconite can produce drug reactions. Vatsanabha (Aconitum ferox Wall.) is a very well-known ingredient of Ayurvedic formulations and is prescribed as an antipyretic, analgesic, anti-rheumatic, appetizer and digestive. The recommended dose of purified Vatsanabha (A. ferox Wall.) root is 15 mg. We present a case of hypotension and bradycardia due to aconite poisoning caused by overdosing of an Ayurvedic medicine (Mahashankha Vati), which was primarily managed by Ayurvedic treatment.
  1 2,847 503
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Usage trends for memory and vitality-enhancing medicines: A pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of the Gujarat region
Jigna Samir Shah, RK Goyal
July-September 2010, 1(3):138-143
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72484  PMID:21170204
Objective: The aim of the study was to explore the trends and rationale of use of memory and vitality-enhancing medicines (MVEM) in the Gujarat region. Materials and Methods: A prospective pharmacoepidemiological study involving pharmacists of Gujarat region was carried out in the year 2005. Pharmacists (n = 351) working in general and Ayurvedic medical stores were selected from 12 districts of Gujarat region. The pharmacists were explained about the objective of the study and were given a pretested, validated questionnaire. Outcome Measures: The questionnaire included the questions regarding herbal MVEM used most commonly, percentage sale of herbal MVEM - sold with or without prescriptions - age group of patients and professional groups who used these drugs most commonly. Results: The number of individuals using MVEM was highest in the age group of 11-20 years (17.54%), followed by the 21-40 years group (17.12%), supporting the results that the professional group of students (17.29%) and the persons of business or service class (15.29%) are the highest users of these medicines. Evaluation of various constituents in the marketed polyherbal MVEM revealed that Brahmi (Bacopa monniera), Shankhpushpi (Evolvulus alsinoides), Ashwangandha (Withania somnifera), Jatamansi (Nardostychos jatamansi), Vacha (Acorus calamus) and Amla (Phyllanthus emblica) were the common ingredients in the polyherbal preparations. Conclusions: This study highlights commonly used Ayurvedic medicines that can be explored for safely enhancing memory and vitality performance. Hence, detailed and scientifically designed research on these drugs would help to identify safe and effective drugs for enhancing the same.
  1 2,835 771
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Choosing statistical test
Shraddha Parab, Supriya Bhalerao
July-September 2010, 1(3):187-191
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72494  PMID:21170214
  - 2,397 636
EDUCATION FORUM
Career options after Bachelor of Ayurvedic Medicine and Surgery
Urmila A Pitkar
July-September 2010, 1(3):192-194
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72495  PMID:21170215
  - 2,668 452
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Barron's rubber band ligation vs. Kshar Sutra ligation
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-September 2010, 1(3):195-195
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72496  PMID:21170217
  - 1,083 287
Exploring larger evidence base for contemporary ayurveda
Sanjeev Rastogi
July-September 2010, 1(3):195-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72497  PMID:21170216
  - 1,022 296
More concerns on triphala mouthwash
Viroj Wiwanitkit
July-September 2010, 1(3):196-196
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72498  PMID:21170218
  - 1,175 445
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Mahayograj guggulu: Heavy metal estimation and safety studies
GS Lavekar, B Ravishankar, S Gaidhani, VJ Shukla, BK Ashok, MM Padhi
July-September 2010, 1(3):150-158
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72486  PMID:21170206
Objective: This study was conducted to estimate the heavy metal profile and determine the safety of Mahayograj guggulu, an Ayurvedic herbo-mineral preparation. Design: Mahayograj guggulu, manufactured by Shree Baidynath Ayurved Bhawan Pvt. Ltd., Gwalior Road, Jhansi - 284 003 (of batch number-07 and manufacturing date October 2004) was procured from the local market. Heavy metal concentrations were measured using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of 40 Charles Foster strain albino rats of either sex with an average body weight of 160-250 g were divided into four groups (Groups I, II, III and IV), with 10 animals in each group. Group I served as the control, while Group II, III and IV rats received Mahayograj guggulu at a dose of 54 (dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose), 270 (five-times the dose equivalent to the human therapeutic dose) and 540 (10-times the dose equivalent to human therapeutic dose) mg/kg, p.o. for 120 days. The effect of drug administration was noted on the ponderal, biochemical, hematological and histopathological parameters. In addition, urine examination was also carried out. At the end of the study, only six rats per group were sacrificed as per the IAEC advice. Results: Mahayograj guggulu was found to be safe at all dose levels tested. No significant behavioral changes were noted in any of the groups studied. The effect on food and water consumption and fecal and urine output remained unaffected in all groups during the study period. No major alterations were observed in hematology, serum biochemistry, necropsy and histopathology at the therapeutically advocated dose level. Heavy metal content measurement indicated levels of 25.8 μg/g for lead, 0.07 μg/g for mercury and 5.19 μg/g for arsenic. Conclusions: The test drug is well tolerated as no changes of a serious nature could be observed in any of the parameters assessed.
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EDITORIAL
Editorial
Urmila Thatte
July-September 2010, 1(3):135-135
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72482  PMID:21170202
  - 1,042 293
GUEST EDITORIAL
Four new approaches for validation of Ayurvedic herbal drugs
RD Lele
July-September 2010, 1(3):136-137
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.72483  PMID:21170203
  - 1,774 754
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