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   2010| October-December  | Volume 1 | Issue 4  
    Online since February 16, 2011

 
 
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata leaf extracts in alloxan-induced diabetic rats
Mukesh S Sikarwar, MB Patil
October-December 2010, 1(4):199-204
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76780  PMID:21455444
The antidiabetic activity of Pongamia pinnata ( Family: Leguminosae) leaf extracts was investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rats. A comparison was made between the action of different extracts of P. pinnata and a known antidiabetic drug glibenclamide (600 μg/kg b. wt.). An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was also performed in experimental diabetic rats. The petroleum ether, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extracts of P. pinnata were obtained by simple maceration method and were subjected to standardization using pharmacognostical and phytochemical screening methods. Dose selection was made on the basis of acute oral toxicity study (50-5000 mg/kg b. w.) as per OECD guidelines. P. pinnata ethanolic extract (PPEE) and aqueous extract (PPAE) showed significant (P < 0.001) antidiabetic activity. In alloxan-induced model, blood glucose levels of these extracts on 7th day of the study were 155.83 ± 11.211mg/dl (PPEE) and 132.00 ± 4.955mg/dl (PPAE) in comparison of diabetic control (413.50 ± 4.752mg/dl) and chloroform extract (210.83 ± 14.912mg/dl). In glucose loaded rats, PPEE exhibited glucose level of 164.50 ± 6.350mg/dl after 30 min and 156.50 ± 4.089mg/dl after 90 min, whereas the levels in PPAE treated animals were 176 ± 3.724mg/dl after 30 min and 110.33 ± 6.687mg/dl after 90 min. These extracts also prevented body weight loss in diabetic rats. The drug has the potential to act as an antidiabetic drug.
  5,717 1,307 9
Effect of tulsi (Ocimum Sanctum Linn.) on sperm count and reproductive hormones in male albino rabbits
Jyoti Sethi, Mridul Yadav, Sushma Sood, Kiran Dahiya, Veena Singh
October-December 2010, 1(4):208-210
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76782  PMID:21455446
Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (OS) were used to study its effect on male reproductive function (sperm count and reproductive hormones) in male albino rabbits. Animals in the test group received supplementation of 2 g of fresh leaves of OS per rabbit for 30 days, while the control group was maintained on normal diet for the same duration. Sperm count and hormonal estimation [testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH)] were done in serum samples of both groups and compared. A significant decrease was noted in the sperm count in test group rabbits. Serum testosterone levels showed marked increase while FSH and LH levels were significantly reduced in OS-treated rabbits. The results suggest the potential use of OS as an effective male contraceptive agent.
  4,252 1,068 5
Pharmacognostical and physicochemical evaluation of Agasti leaf
Pramod Yadav, CR Harisha, PK Prajapati
October-December 2010, 1(4):231-236
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76787  PMID:21455451
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers., commonly known as Agasti, is widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diseases and for processing of various formulations in Rasashastra. It is used for its astringent, antihistaminic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsive and febrifugal activities. Moreover, because of its edible nature, the leaves and pods are used as flavoring items in the cuisine of South India. A detailed investigation of fresh and powder of leaves of Agasti was carried out. The diagnostic characters of this plant include stomatal characters, presence of resins, oil globules, appressed epidermal hair and mucilage cells. Physicochemical studies revealed loss on drying (0.6%), total ash (10.75%), acid insoluble ash (0.045%), alcohol-soluble extractive (21.7%), and water-soluble extractive (30.72%). Preliminary analysis for the presence of various functional groups revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, phenols and proteins. Thin layer chromatographic study of the alcoholic extract showed the presence of five, six and seven spots in short UV, long UV and after spraying developing reagent, respectively. The information generated by this particular study will provide relevant pharmacognostical and physicochemical data needed for proper identification and authentication of leaves of this particular species.
  4,221 589 -
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Understanding survival analysis: Kaplan-Meier estimate
Manish Kumar Goel, Pardeep Khanna, Jugal Kishore
October-December 2010, 1(4):274-278
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76794  PMID:21455458
Kaplan-Meier estimate is one of the best options to be used to measure the fraction of subjects living for a certain amount of time after treatment. In clinical trials or community trials, the effect of an intervention is assessed by measuring the number of subjects survived or saved after that intervention over a period of time. The time starting from a defined point to the occurrence of a given event, for example death is called as survival time and the analysis of group data as survival analysis. This can be affected by subjects under study that are uncooperative and refused to be remained in the study or when some of the subjects may not experience the event or death before the end of the study, although they would have experienced or died if observation continued, or we lose touch with them midway in the study. We label these situations as censored observations. The Kaplan-Meier estimate is the simplest way of computing the survival over time in spite of all these difficulties associated with subjects or situations. The survival curve can be created assuming various situations. It involves computing of probabilities of occurrence of event at a certain point of time and multiplying these successive probabilities by any earlier computed probabilities to get the final estimate. This can be calculated for two groups of subjects and also their statistical difference in the survivals. This can be used in Ayurveda research when they are comparing two drugs and looking for survival of subjects.
  3,397 1,275 15
REVIEW ARTICLES
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn.: A phytopharmacological review
Varsha J Galani, BG Patel, DG Rana
October-December 2010, 1(4):247-253
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76790  PMID:21455454
Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. (Asteraceae) is widely used in Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat vitiated conditions of epilepsy, mental illness, hemicrania, jaundice, hepatopathy, diabetes, leprosy, fever, pectoralgia, cough, gastropathy, hernia, hemorrhoids, helminthiasis, dyspepsia and skin diseases. There are reports providing scientific evidences for hypotensive, anxiolytic, neuroleptic, hypolipidemic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, bronchodialatory, antihyperglycemic and hepatoprotective activities of this plant. A wide range of phytochemical constituents have been isolated from this plant including sesquiterpene lactones, eudesmenolides, flavanoids and essential oil. A comprehensive account of the morphology, phytochemical constituents, ethnobotanical uses and pharmacological activities reported are included in this review for exploring the immense medicinal potential of this plant.
  3,363 757 7
A protocol for systematic reviews of ayurveda treatments
Saravu R Narahari, Madhur Guruprasad Aggithaya, Kumbla R Suraj
October-December 2010, 1(4):254-267
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76791  PMID:21455455
This protocol is intended primarily for Ayurveda doctors who wish to take up systematic reviews along with an expert who has experience in doing such reviews. We have structured this protocol by incorporating the principles of patient treatment in Ayurveda, within the Cochrane framework, using Vitiligo as a model. The treatment section provides a comprehensive list of classical medicines used in the treatment of the disease. This will help in increasing the search terms. Such a list also helps to determine the needs of individualized treatment principles used in the trial and to assess the confounding factors. The search strategy includes an extensive listing of eastern data bases and hand searching. In Ayurveda, the titles of articles are not in the Population, Intervention, Control, and Outcome (PICO) pattern and sometimes the title and methodology do not tally. Therefore, a search of all types of studies is necessary to pool all the relevant publications. A data extraction form is proposed for use in assessing the quality of Ayurvedic studies. The form provides a template for performing evidence reviews of Ayurvedic interventions.
  3,119 764 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Effect of Tectona grandis Linn. seeds on hair growth activity of albino mice
Deepali Jaybhaye, Sushikumar Varma, Nitin Gagne, Vijay bonde, Amol Gite, Deepak Bhosle
October-December 2010, 1(4):211-215
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76783  PMID:21455447
The seeds of Tectona grandis Linn. are traditionally acclaimed as hair tonic in the Indian system of medicine. Studies were therefore undertaken in order to evaluate petroleum ether extract of T. grandis seeds for its effect on hair growth in albino mice. The 5% and 10% extracts incorporated into simple ointment base were applied topically on shaved denuded skin of albino mice. The time required for initiation of hair growth as well as completion of hair growth cycle was recorded. Minoxidil 2% solution was applied topically and served as positive control. The result of treatment with minoxidil 2% is 49% hair in anagenic phase. Hair growth initiation time was significantly reduced to half on treatment with the extracts compared to control animals. The treatment was successful in bringing a greater number of hair follicles (64% and 51%) in anagenic phase than standard minoxidil (49%). The results of treatment with 5% and 10% petroleum ether extracts were comparable to the positive control minoxidil.
  2,954 862 -
Efficacy of Agnikarma over the padakanistakam (little toe) and Katibasti in Gridhrasi: A comparative study
Yogitha Bali, R Vijayasarathi, John Ebnezar, BA Venkatesh
October-December 2010, 1(4):223-230
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76786  PMID:21455450
Background and Objectives: Gridhrasi (Sciatica) is one of the Vatavyadhi which is caused by aggravated Vata dosha. This disease is characterized by ruja (pain) in the waist, back, thigh, knee and calf regions along the course of sciatic nerve. In spite of the different types of treatment modalities mentioned in ancient and modern medical sciences, they have some or the other shortcomings and drawbacks. Considering all these, the present study was taken up with the objective of evaluating the efficacy of Agnikarma (treatment done with cauterization) over the padakanistakam (little toe) in the management of Gridhrasi. To consider the significance of the method of Agnikarma, the efficacy of Katibasti in the management of Gridhrasi which has been established in the previous work was also studied. Materials and Methods: The study was performed after obtaining Ethics Committee approval and patients' written informed consent. Forty cases presenting with classical features of Gridhrasi (Sciatica) due to lumbar intervertebral disc prolapse were selected. The management of Gridhrasi by Agnikarma and Katibasti was conducted by including the patients in two groups, namely Group A (study group) and Group B (control group). The data were collected and the observations were made before the treatment, on 8 th day, 15 th day and on 22 nd day of the treatment. The data obtained from the results were subjected for statistical analysis and conclusions were drawn. Results: There was a significant reduction in the parameters, pain (P < 0.01) and straight-leg raising (SLR) test (P < 0.01), of the study group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). Pain was assessed through Numerical Pain Analogue Scale. After the treatment with Agnikarma, the pain was totally relieved in 80% of cases. It was reduced to moderate degree in 20% of cases and in 95% of cases, SLR test became negative. After the treatment with Katibasti, the pain was totally relieved in 50% of cases. It was reduced to moderate degree in 20% and to mild degree in 25% of cases. In 60% of cases, SLR test became negative. However, changes in the radiological findings were not found in both the methods of management. Analysis of overall effect of treatment in the present study reveals that Agnikarma was statistically significant compared to that of Katibasti. Conclusions: The management of Gridhrasi by Agnikarma was more efficacious as compared with Katibasti in reducing pain. However, there were no radiological changes produced by both the methods of treatment. Further studies may be conducted by future scholars by taking more samples with more number of sittings.
  3,213 541 -
EDITORIAL
The national pharmacovigilance program for Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani drugs: Current status
MS Baghel
October-December 2010, 1(4):197-198
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76779  PMID:21455443
  2,173 1,056 3
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Pharmacognostic study of Chlorophytum tuberosum baker
VN Patil, SS Deokule
October-December 2010, 1(4):237-242
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76788  PMID:21455452
Chlorophytum tuberosum Baker belongs to family Liliaceae and is being used in the indigenous systems of medicine as a galactogogue and aphrodisiac. It is being sold in the market under the common name safed musali. The white tuberous roots of this plant are the medicinally useful parts. The tuberous roots of other species of Chlorophytum, Asparagus, Bombax and Orchids are also sometimes called safed musali leading to confusion. In order to ensure correct botanical standardization to remove the controversy, a detailed pharmacognostic study on tuberous roots of Chlorophytum has been carried out in this study .
  2,577 559 -
CASE REPORTS
Role of honey (Madhu) in the management of wounds (Dushta Vrana)
Tukaram S Dudhamal, SK Gupta, C Bhuyan
October-December 2010, 1(4):271-273
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76793  PMID:21455457
Application of Madhu (honey) is one among the Shashthi Upakrama (sixty treatment modalities) described by Sushruta. Clinical observation has shown its effectiveness in treatment of Dushta Vrana (chronic wounds). We report a case of Dushta Vrana on the anterior aspect of the right leg that was treated successfully with local application of Madhu and Neem (Azadirachata indica) bark decoction.
  2,071 580 1
A case discussion on eczema
Pallavi Hegde, DT Hemanth, SV Emmi, MP Shilpa, Pradeep S Shindhe, YM Santosh
October-December 2010, 1(4):268-270
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76792  PMID:21455456
Eczema is a form of dermatitis where inflammation of epidermis occurs. The exact cause of eczema is not known. Although it is activated by the immune system and is related to allergic reactions, it is not the same as other allergic reactions. In Ayurveda, the disease is described by the name "Vicharchika." Virechana is the best line of management for skin disorders. Controlling eczema more effectively can make a radical improvement to the patient's quality of life. A case report of 45-year-old male, who presented with complaints of rashes over dorsum of both foot associated with intense itching and burning sensation, oozing wound posterior to lateral malleolus and dorsum of left foot has been presented here.
  2,093 557 1
ORIGINAL ARTICLES
Validated HPLC-UV method for the determination of berberine in raw herb Daruharidra (Berberis aristata DC), its extract, and in commercially marketed ayurvedic dosage forms
Anubhuti Pasrija, Rahul Singh, Chandra Kant Katiyar
October-December 2010, 1(4):243-246
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76789  PMID:21455453
A new, simple, sensitive, selective, and precise high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for analysis of berberine in crude plant material, herbal extract, and ayurvedic dosage forms was developed and validated. The stationary phase was inert sil C 18 column . The mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile (HPLC Grade) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (pH 2.5) in a gradient flow was used.The column was equilibrated with the mobile phase (flow rate 1.0 ml/min); elution was monitored at 346 nm. The linear regression analysis data for the calibration plots showed good linear relationship, with r 2 = 0.9942 in the concentration range of 16380-30420 μg/ml with respect to the peak area. The method was validated for specificity, precision, recovery, and linearity according to the International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. Statistical analysis of the data showed that the method is reproducible and selective for the estimation of berberine.
  1,984 569 -
A survey of the labeling information provided for ayurvedic drugs marketed in India
Supriya Bhalerao, Renuka Munshi, Prajakta Tilve, Dipti Kumbhar
October-December 2010, 1(4):220-222
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76785  PMID:21455449
Background: Ayurvedic drugs fall under the purview of the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 and labels on Ayurvedic drug containers need to comply with the requirements specified in this Act (Part XVII, 161). The present survey was conducted to evaluate whether Ayurvedic drug labels were in compliance with the Drugs and Cosmetics Act, 1940 with respect to their contents. Materials and Methods: Ayurvedic drugs container labels at three Ayurvedic pharmacies were selected based on the convenience sampling method. Their contents were checked against a set of quality criteria given in the Act. The results are expressed as percentages. Results: Basic manufacturing details were present on all the 190 labels reviewed (101 classical and 89 proprietary formulations). References from authoritative books as specified in the 1st Schedule of the Act were mentioned on 90% of labels of the 101 classical formulations reviewed. Fifty-five percent (n = 56) labels of classical drugs and 79 (88%) labels of proprietary drugs provided an ingredient list. Although 20 (20%) of classical formulations and 13 (15%) of proprietary formulations labels mentioned the Cautions/Warnings, only one language (either English or Hindi) was used. Conclusion: Ayurvedic drug container labels were not compliant with most of the requirements specified in the Act.
  1,933 452 2
Efficacy and safety of livwin (polyherbal formulation) in patients with acute viral hepatitis: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial
Yogendra Keche, Vandana Badar, Mrunalini Hardas
October-December 2010, 1(4):216-219
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76784  PMID:21455448
Objectives: The study was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Livwin (polyherbal formulation) in acute viral hepatitis. Materials and Methods: In this study, there were 29 patients in each group, receiving either Livwin (containing Ashwagandha, Arjuna, Bhumyamalaki, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Kutki and Punarnava) or placebo capsules containing lactose powder (500 mg). Both drugs were given orally two capsules two times a day for eight weeks followed by treatment free period of four weeks. Recovery of patients was assessed by noting symptomatic recovery and by measuring levels of serum bilirubin, serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase at baseline, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results: Significant earlier recovery of weakness was observed with Livwin as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. Serum bilirubin and ALT was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2, 4 and 8 weeks. AST was observed in normal range in significantly more number of patients with Livwin treatment as compared to placebo at 2 and 4 weeks. Conclusions: Livwin is found effective in uncomplicated patients of acute viral hepatitis. Epigastric pain and diarrhea were reported with Livwin treatment.
  1,977 389 1
Anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha: An ayurvedic compound formulation
Shyamlal Singh Yadav, Galib , B Ravishankar, PK Prajapati, BK Ashok, B Varun
October-December 2010, 1(4):205-207
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76781  PMID:21455445
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of Shirishavaleha prepared from two different parts of Shirisha (Albizia lebbeck Benth.), viz. the bark (Twak) and the heartwood (Sara). The activity was screened in the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model in albino rats. The raw materials were collected and authenticated in the university and the trial formulations were prepared by following standard classical guidelines. Randomly selected animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. The test drugs were administered orally at a dose of 1.8 g/kg for 5 days. Phenylbutazone was used as the standard anti-inflammatory drug for comparison. Between the two different test samples studied, the formulation made from heartwood showed a weak anti-inflammatory activity in this model while that made from the bark produced a considerable suppression of edema after 6 h. It appears that the bark sample would be preferable for clinical use.
  1,831 532 2
LETTERS TO EDITOR
About gold in human semen
KP Skandhan, B Sumangala, P Sahab Khan, S Amith, KPS Avni
October-December 2010, 1(4):282-283
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76798  PMID:21455459
  1,420 487 1
NEWS AND FILLER
Update Ayurveda report
Supriya Bhalerao
October-December 2010, 1(4):279-279
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76795  
  1,241 328 -
Science meet report: Safety and risk assessment approaches for materials of herbal origin
D.B A Narayana
October-December 2010, 1(4):279-281
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76796  
  1,235 303 -
LETTERS TO EDITOR
Use of Indian (Ayurveda) style alternative medicine in Thailand
Viroj Wiwanitkit
October-December 2010, 1(4):282-282
DOI:10.4103/0974-7788.76797  PMID:21455460
  995 333 -
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